I would talk to the financial aid people at that college. If it comes back that you didn't take a loan then it could be identity theft.
That is scary. I agree with Alexortiz20 to work with the school to do a trace. Also bring your credit report with you as proof. There usually is an account number on there that they may be able to verify in their system. I know that for one of my banks they report CDs as a mortgage. So maybe there is something out there that was just reported wrong. Work with the financial aid office and I am sure you will get this all cleared up. May also help if you paid OOP to bring proof of payment just in case someone keyyed incorrectly your info into their system as outstanding balance.