I don't know that I completely understand your question but in a Sole Proprietership, the owner and the business are the same. The business is entered as a Schedule C on your Federal Tax Return.
If you make $10,000 a year working as an employee and you also have a business that grossed $100,000 the same year and had $80,000 in expenses then you are paying income tax on the $10,000 in wages plus the $20,000 in profit from the business.
Does that answer your question?
Don't forget that if the business is doing its accounting on an accrual basis that you pay income tax on the profit. That is not likely to be the same as the draws you take out of the business. If you take no draw for the year and everything stays the same except your inventory is now worth $5,000 more, you are paying taxes on the $5,000 even though you didn't take any money to use to pay the taxes.